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CSS is identified by a CER code (typically 191210 – fuel derived from waste), while CSS-fuel being a product is no longer included in the waste management regime.

The first can be defined as solid fuel obtained from non-hazardous waste, used for energy recovery in incineration or co-incineration plants, complying with the specifications and classification given by UNI EN 15359:2011.

The second is conceived as a “subset” of the different possible types of secondary solid fuel (CSS), which due to its classification and specification characteristics such that it is possible to issue a declaration of conformity in compliance with the provisions of Article 8, paragraph 2 of the Environment Ministerial Decree 14 February 2013, n. 22. This distinction leads to CSS being part non-hazardous waste (definition as per art. 184, paragraph 1, of Legislative Decree no. 152/2006) and part product marketed as fuel.

UNI 9903-1 defines normal quality CDR (fuel derived from waste) and high quality CDR-Q. Both are particular CSS which in accordance with UNI EN 15359 assume a class of CSS based on the quantities of chlorine and mercury and according to the PCI (lower calorific value).

The current CSS scenario, being new and there being this overlap between CDR and CDR-Q as subcategories, has generated in the current initial scenario a confusion that is not very useful for the debate on the use of the categories used as fuel. In particular, article 8, paragraph 1, letter b) of ministerial decree no. 22/2013 defines CSS-fuel, taking the elements of Table 1 – Classification of secondary solid fuels (CSS) (from UNI EN 15359) “exclusively the secondary solid fuel (CSS) with PCI and Cl (chlorine) as defined by the classes 1, 2, 3 and related combinations, and as regards Hg as defined by classes 1 and 2, listed in Table 1, referring to each sub-batch”. The interpretative error is due to the fact that class III of UNI EN 15359:2011 is partially included in the definition of CSS-fuel.

It can derive from the treatment of homogeneous and appropriately selected fractions of municipal waste, industrial waste, commercial waste, construction and demolition waste, non-hazardous civil and industrial wastewater purification sludge, etc.[1]

It usually comes in various forms, thickened or not. It can be in the form of fluff (similar to confetti), in this case it can be left loose or pressed in presses normally of a parallelepiped shape weighing from approximately 500 to 1 000 kg each and usually filmed on all sides with a polyethylene film . Or it can be in a thickened form and in this case it can be presented as pellets, briquettes or in granular form.

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